Few ideas have been more persistently central in both strategy and organisation
research than the concept of fit.
While early contingency approaches focused on a dichotomous notion of fit, such
as the 'internal fit' between strategy and structure or the "external fit"
between structure and environment, configurational approaches to strategy and
organisation traditionally adopted a multidimensional or 'configurational'
notion of fit, understood as the systemic relationship among multiple sets of
elements, either internal or external to a focal organisation.
In this paper, theory-based counterfactual analysis is used to tackle the lack
of predictive power often characterising current approaches to configurational
fit. Secondly, the researchers rely on recent applications of set-theoretic and
relational, network-based, methods to enrich the empirical assessment of
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