Consider this example:
'Hundreds of students across the United States organise boycotts of apparel
produced under dubious labour conditions. Through their 'no sweat' campaign
they call attention to the labour conditions in factories making popular
foot-ware and clothing brands. This forces many large fashion companies to
rethink their procurement policies (Ross, 1997).'
International business has been a contested terrain ever since the Europeans
set their feet on the American continent, unleashing a long and violent history
of colonialism and anti-colonial struggle.
The above example of contemporary actors articulating their discontent about
the way increasingly powerful multinational firms affect the lives of people
across the world and is part of a far larger set of challenges to multinational
firms, articulated by a wide range of groups in different international
While protests against the WTO, IMF, World Bank and the so called 'Washington
Consensus' more generally do not necessarily implicate particular multinational
companies directly, they are part of a wider discursive assault on an emerging
global order that is seen to be dominated by global business interests.
This paper contributes to critical understandings of how international business
is resisted. It develops a Neo-Gramscian approach that emphasises the
importance of informal or 'infrapolitical' processes. Current
conceptualisations demonstrate how international business is challenged via
formal and organised political strategies in the firm, the state and civil
society. The infra-political dimension is understated.
This paper develops a theory of 'articulation' that broadens our understandings
of how international business is resisted in both formal and informal
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